Promote the return to the countryside to start a business and realize the overall revitalization of the countryside
发布日期：2020-01-20 Source: Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security Date: 2020-01-20
The implementation of the strategy of rural rejuvenation is a major decision-making arrangement made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that we must adhere to the overall revitalization of the countryside and realize the revitalization of rural industries, talents, culture, ecology, and organizations. A comprehensive breakthrough is urgently needed. I believe that the promotion of rural migrant workers and other rural entrepreneurs as the starting point, the implementation of the employment priority policy, the use of entrepreneurship to promote employment, the promotion of the integrated development of rural primary, secondary and tertiary industries, and the realization of more adequate and higher quality employment , Is a main direction of implementation of the rural revitalization strategy and the overall rural revitalization.
I. The return and participation of industrial talents is conducive to the development of rural industries and expands employment space
After years of working outside the country, migrant laborers have worked hard in various industries, broadened their horizons, improved their skills, and accumulated a certain amount of capital and rich human capital. They are an important force to realize the overall revitalization of rural areas. Moreover, the roots of their houses, land and loved ones are still in the countryside. At this moment, the thought of deciduous roots and the strategy of rural revitalization have organically integrated.
According to relevant survey data from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, 80% of returnee entrepreneurs are migrant workers and are currently in a rapid growth stage. In 2017 alone, 840,000 returnee entrepreneurs were added, and each returnee entrepreneur can drive Employed 5.5 people. According to the monitoring data of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, 9.5% of returning rural migrant workers chose to start a business in the third quarter of 2019. China's huge migrant workers are becoming the main force of returning home and starting businesses. The 280 million migrant workers provide a continuous motivation for returning home and starting businesses. Promoting the integration of urban and rural areas and the overall revitalization of rural areas through returning home and starting businesses is the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics. An innovation, which has not appeared in foreign countries, and the land contract system with Chinese characteristics enables migrant workers who go out to work and do business to have this advantage naturally.
Migrant workers returning home to start their own businesses have innovative characteristics in the introduction of new technologies, new products, industrial integration, new business development, and Internet applications. Two-thirds of those returning home and starting a business are related to the business they did before returning home. For example, Zhengan County, Guizhou Province, introduced migrant workers in Guangdong for more than 10 years to return to their hometown in 2013 to start a Divine Music Instrument Company, and attracted many guitar manufacturers to settle in Zhengan. Zheng'an County builds nests and attracts phoenixes, turns on the "green light" for guitar manufacturers, introduces related preferential policies, and builds "Zheng'an. International Guitar Park" in Zheng'an Economic Development Zone. In 2018, the Zhengan International Guitar Industrial Park has achieved 6 million guitars and an output value of about 6 billion yuan. It has 13employees, including 1,284 poor people and 6,690 people out of poverty.
Second, the returnees are suitable for the important tasks of the "three rural" work, and have become an important source of the "three rural" workforce
There is still a certain gap between China's "three rural" workforce and the requirements for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, and it is urgently necessary for newcomers with an industrial background to enter. Migrant workers who have worked hard in urban markets and the secondary and tertiary industries for many years have accumulated rich human capital and are a “rich mine” of talents.
We found in the survey that returnees, especially migrant workers, have become an important source of the workforce for agriculture, rural areas and farmers. For every one-year increase in the age of migrant workers, the return rate increases by about 0.5 percentage point, and the return peak is 41 years old. Migrant workers at this age understand the benefits of reform and opening up, and sincerely support the party's leadership. They have high vision, rich social experience, and emancipated ideas. They have management experience in large industrial work and social experience in urban life. Combined with the city, it is very suitable to undertake the heavy task of "three rural" work. For example, among the 12,800 village cadres newly elected in Chengdu, rich leaders, returning migrant workers, and repatriated soldiers accounted for 50.8% of the total. Among the 1784 newly-generated village party branch secretaries in Yanan City, 50.6% accounted for 50.6% of the leaders who became wealthy, those who returned to work, returned to their hometowns, were major industrial households, and were veterans.
Third, returning home and starting a business still faces many new challenges and needs policy support
Due to the inadequate production and operation supporting facilities in rural areas and the risks of natural disasters and epidemics in agriculture, returning home and starting a business face higher costs and greater risks than starting a business in the city.
At the same time, returning to the countryside and starting a business also faces the "five difficulties" of difficulty in raising funds, difficulty in obtaining services, difficulty in supporting talents, difficulty in using land for enterprises, and difficulty in managing risks. Therefore, the core of the return-to-home entrepreneurship policy and service should rely on local resources and talent advantages, starting from reducing various production and operation costs, highlighting county characteristics, developing characteristic villages and towns, and forming relatively concentrated industrial advantage projects in central towns. The village develops various projects that involve agriculture and can promote income growth and employment.
4. Promote migrant workers and other personnel to return to their hometowns to start their own businesses and realize the overall revitalization of the countryside
The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs have recently issued a total of 14 Opinions on Further Promoting the Work of Returning to Hometown and Entrepreneurship (hereinafter referred to as the "Opinions"), from increasing policy support, improving entrepreneurship training, and optimizing entrepreneurship services. 5. Strengthen the support of talents and strengthen the implementation of the five aspects. Adhere to the problem-oriented approach. The problems of financing, services, talents, and risk responses reflected by returnees and entrepreneurs will be improved. Key policies will be improved and policies implemented. This is not only a policy to promote the return of rural migrant workers and other entrepreneurs, but also an important measure to promote the overall revitalization of the countryside. The Opinion has the following characteristics:
First, implement entrepreneurial support policies and strengthen financing support. The first is to clarify policies such as tax and fee reductions, venue arrangements, and one-time business subsidies. If it is clear that the main body of the entrepreneurial market for returning to rural areas absorbs the employment of the poor, it may refer to those who have difficulty in employment to implement social security subsidies and enjoy the policy support of the new rural business entities. The second is to increase support for discounted interest on start-up secured loans. Through the establishment of information ledger and information database, exploring the construction of credit-free villages, credit parks, and entrepreneurship incubation training bases to recommend guarantee-free mechanisms, etc., reduce the counter-guarantee threshold through multiple channels. Open a new way of "Internet + returning hometown entrepreneurial enterprises + credit", and promote the "government + bank + insurance" financing model to returning hometown entrepreneurs.
Second, promote entrepreneurship through entrepreneurship training. The first is to expand the scale of training. All returnees and entrepreneurs with training needs will be included in the scope of entrepreneurship training, and entrepreneurship improvement training will be provided for returnees and entrepreneurs who lead the venture. The second is to improve the quality of training. Based on the characteristics of returnees and entrepreneurs, develop a number of characteristic professional and demonstration training courses. The third is to implement training subsidies. Encourage the purchase of training programs through the project system, and encourage localities to support the basic work such as teachers and management platforms based on actual needs.
Third, optimize business services. The first is to improve service capabilities. Improve the entrepreneurial service capabilities of public employment service agencies below the county level, and establish a management and training mechanism for grassroots service personnel. Establish an expert team to provide advice and guidance to returnees and entrepreneurs. The second is to strengthen carrier services. Strive for 5-10 years of rural innovation and entrepreneurship incubation training base to cover the whole country. Implementation of preferential policies such as rent, property fee reduction, fixed subsidies for water and electricity heating. The third is to establish a safeguard mechanism. Promote small- and micro-enterprise entrepreneurs who return to their hometowns to participate in work-related injury insurance in accordance with regulations, and launch pilots for occupational injury protection for employees in new businesses.
Fourth, strengthen talent support. The first is to do a good job in employment services. Support farmers' professional cooperatives, professional technology associations, handicraft inheritors and other organizations and individuals to provide skills training and provide training subsidies in accordance with regulations. The second is to deepen the recruitment of talents. Carry out training to improve the capabilities of returnees and entrepreneurs, establish a liaison mechanism for local migrants, and include talents recruited by returnees and entrepreneurs into the scope of policy support.
Fifth, strengthen organizational leadership and department coordination. The "Opinions" integrates the resources of human society, finance, agriculture and other departments to improve the coordination and promotion mechanism. The statistical survey system was improved, the system for leading cadres to contact the enterprise was improved, the needs of the enterprise were understood in time, and the problems were resolved. Through the implementation of projects such as information entering villages and households, the efficiency of returning home and starting a business is improved. A number of demonstration counties for returning home and starting a business were launched, and a number of demonstration carriers and projects for returning home and starting a business were established and supported. Intensify policy promotion and atmosphere creation, and praise outstanding leaders who return to their hometowns.
The "Opinions" also encourage localities to actively explore, boldly innovate, and strengthen policy support and service guarantee in light of actual conditions. We believe that with the promulgation and implementation of the "Opinions", it will help to optimize the environment for returning to rural areas to start a business, promote the continuous innovation pattern of returning home to start a business, and realize the overall revitalization of the countryside.